Every mobile and computer user uses the Internet, you also have access to many websites so far. But do you know what DNS is, what does it work and how does it work? DNS is a big contributor to any website. We are using this Domain Name System every day, but many people know about it. After reading this article, you too will know everything about it.
As we all know that our computer does not understand our (humans) language, it only recognizes numbers.
These numbers (IP addresses) are very difficult to remember. DNS is the domain name system use to remember them. This allows the site to access by pointing the numbers to a domain.
Today we will talk about this DNS and will tell you in detail What is DNS, How it’s work etc.
What is DNS?
The full form of DNS is the Domain Name System, it is the Internet’s phonebook. This DNS translates domain names into IP addresses so that browsers can load Internet resources. Just like we use PhoneBook to save numbers in the mobile, the Domain Name System uses DNS to remember the IP addresses of websites.
If we define it in a line, it will be something like this.
This is a system that translates the IP address, or domain name, so that the web browser can understand which web page you want to access on the Internet.
Humans obtain information online through domain names such as mozedia.com or google.com. Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
Each domain name and device connected to the Internet has a unique IP address. Which shows on which server the content of the website is store.
DNS servers eliminate humans’ need to remember 18.104.22.168 (in IPv4), or more complex new alphanumeric IP addresses such as 2400: ca00: 2048: 1:: c625: d7a4 (in IPv6).
There are a lot of websites in the world, so it is difficult to store all this information in a single DNS system.
All these servers are connecting to each other. If information not find in one DNS, then it automatically establishes contact with other DNS.
Also, tell you that a domain has only one IP, it is not necessary. A domain name can also associate with multiple IP addresses.
History of DNS
Many years ago, when the size of the Internet was very small, there were very few websites and devices, whose IP address logo to remember.
But when the size of this network increase and thousands of websites create, it became very difficult to remember all these IP addresses.
Then in the 1980s, a person name Paul Mockapetris (who was a computer scientist) invent the domain name system to deal with this problem.
Although you can still access a website through its IP, but hardly you will remember the IP of a website, by the way… usually, we do not even need it.
How does DNS work?
The process of DNS resolution converts a hostname (such as www.example.com) to a computer-friendly IP address (such as 22.214.171.124).
An IP address assign to each device on the Internet, and that address require to find the appropriate Internet device.
For example, street addresses use to locate a particular house. In the same way, when a user wants to load a webpage, the user uses a web browser and machine-friendly addresses such as example.com.
To understand the process behind DNS resolution, it is important to learn about the various hardware components between which DNS queries are pass.
For web browsers, the DNS lookup is “behind the scenes” and requires no interaction with the user’s computer other than the initial request.
Let us explain to you according to points,
- When we enter the address of a website ie domain name like example.com in the address bar of the browser, the first task of the browser is to find the IP address of that domain.
- For this, the cache memory of the browser is checking first. If you have visited Google’s website before then its IP address is stored in your browser’s cache.
- If the IP is found in the cache, it opens the website and if the IP does not store in the browser cache, then the browser will request transfer to the operating system of your system such as Windows, Android, or Mac.
- Your operating system sends this request to the resolver ie your Internet Service Provider (ISP) which also has a cache, which can contain a record of IP address.
- If IP is found here then this process ends and IP information is given to the client. Which makes the website accessible.
Some More Point
- And even if IP is not found here, the request is transferred from the resolver to the root server.
- The top-level domain server, which has information about the server of the top-level domain such as .com, .net, .org etc.
- Here the appropriate top-level domain server contact according to the domain of the website. For example, a request will be sent to the .com server for our website mozedia.
- Finally, the information of the actual name server is taken from the authoritative name server and then the IP address of the domain is found from here.
- When the IP address is found, then it is sent to the client, you can access the website through it.
- IP also store in the cache by the browser so that this process will not have to be done again.
Here you have seen how long the process follows to find an IP address. But the good thing is that all these steps are complete in a few milliseconds.
In this article, we have learned what DNS is, what is its history and how does it work? I hope you have liked this information.
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